- the branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice
- biomedicine and health (including research on AIDS, infectious diseases and drug abuse),
- That principle is also enshrined in Article 21 of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine of the Council of Europe, which many Member States have ratified.
- It should also be noted that some Member States are signatories to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine of the Council of Europe, and its additional protocol on Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of Human Origin.
- In this ethical review, account is taken of principles reflected in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and relevant international conventions such as the Convention of the Council of Europe on Human Rights and Biomedicine signed in Oviedo on 4 April 1997 and its additional protocols and the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and the Human Rights adopted by UNESCO.
- The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union should be recalled, notably the principle set out in Article 3(2)(c) thereof. That principle is also enshrined in Article 21 of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine of the Council of Europe, which many Member States have ratified.
- This Directive is based on international experience drawn upon through an extensive consultation, the Council of Europe’s Guide to safety and quality assurance for organs, tissues and cells, the European Convention on Human Rights, the Council of Europe’s Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine: Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (Oviedo, 4.IV.1997), with its additional protocols, and recommendations from the World Health Organisation.