the sending and processing of e-mail by computer
- Moreover, the monopolistic activities may also compete — indirectly — with competitive non-postal activities such as electronic messaging ( ‘e-substitution’)  or fax.
- The use of the TACHOnet messaging system is an established and trustworthy tool for the electronic exchange of data between Member States concerning the issuance and control of driver cards, and to which already 28 European countries are connected.
- A group of Member States may also use, to exchange electronic data between themselves, a compatible system, which complies at least with the TACHOnet XML messaging Reference Guide published on the Commission website, as long as they exchange electronic data with all other Member States through TACHOnet.
- Persons who merely convert paper documents into electronic data and are acting under a contract with a payment service provider do not fall within the scope of this Regulation; the same applies to any natural or legal person who provides payment service providers solely with messaging or other support systems for transmitting funds or with clearing and settlement systems.