an unofficial market in which goods are bought and sold at prices lower than the official price set by a regulatory agency
- However, in those cases, concerning generally ‘white’ or ‘grey’ areas, the market did not support a competitive supply of broadband services or there were structural impediments to the roll-out of broadband .
- ‘White areas’ have no broadband provision at all, ‘grey areas’ are similar to a natural monopoly where the network is controlled by a single operator not granting access to its basic infrastructure. Appingedam, however, can be considered a ‘black area’ in which the market situation is characterized by the availability of different broadband services over at least 2 competing infrastructures (such as telephone and cable TV networks). For projects covering ‘black areas’ only, there is a high risk that state intervention crowds out existing and future private investments.