a temporary action by workers to protest management decision or to make demands
- Action should focus on the provision of personalised services, including job search assistance, job placement and training to adjust the skills of job-seekers and employees to the needs of local labour markets.
- active and preventive labour market measures including early identification of needs, job search assistance, guidance and training as part of personalised action plans, provision of necessary social services to support the inclusion of those furthest away from the labour market and contribute to the eradication of poverty,
- On 27 September 1995, the Commission consulted management and labour at Community level in accordance with Article 138(2) of the Treaty on the course of action to be adopted at Community level with regard to flexibility of working hours and job security of workers.
- the implementation of active and preventive measures ensuring the early identification of needs with individual action plans and personalised support, such as tailored training, job search, outplacement and mobility, self-employment and business creation, including cooperative enterprises, incentives to encourage participation in the labour market, flexible measures to keep older workers in employment longer, and measures to reconcile work and private life, such as facilitating access to childcare and care for dependent persons;
- Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions An action plan for airport capacity, efficiency and safety in Europe, 24 January 2007, COM(2006) 819 final.  Case C-35/96 Commission v Italy  ECR I-3851, paragraph 36; C-41/90 Höfner and Elser  ECR I-1979, paragraph 21; Case C-244/94 Fédération Française des Sociétés d'Assurances v Ministère de l'Agriculture et de la Pêche  ECR I-4013, paragraph 14; Case C-55/96 Job Centre  ECR I-7119, paragraph 21.
- The conclusions drawn by the European Employment Task Force and the examination of the Member States' National Action Plans for employment, both contained in the Joint Employment Report 2003-2004, show that Member States and the social partners should give priority to increasing the adaptability of workers and enterprises to changing economic conditions and labour market demands; attracting more people to enter and remain in the labour market and making work a real option for all, including by facilitating the access of unemployed young people to their first job and by encouraging older workers to stay in the labour market; investing more and more effectively in human capital and lifelong learning as well as in research and development, including platforms for excellence; and ensuring the effective implementation of reforms through better governance, including efforts aimed at improving democratic involvement, at convincing citizens of the need for reforms and at strengthening links between EU funding, the ESF in particular, and the implementation of the European Employment Guidelines.